To learn to read, every child must know the basic elements of the reading code...The Alphabet. Children who are sent on to Frist Grade able to recite the alphabet are at an advantage. If they can recognize and name the individual letters accurately, they are even better prepared to learn to read.
The good reader is one who instantly recognizes words. Once a word has been figured out through "sounding it out" or by other means, it must be committed to memory. Memory has to be trained and developed; it cannot be taken for granted.
Students have to learn how to think, academically. They have to be taught how to process information they see and hear. They have to learn how to store sequences of information and to refer back to that information when asked a question to be able to provide the correct answer. That requires specific training that is systematic.
Students have to learn new concepts that teachers use when they give instructions. While the children may use those same concepts in their daily speaking patterns, parents and teachers have to make sure that they really know what the words mean.
Finally, students have to develop the capacity to keep up with the teacher''s pace of instruction. If "Janie" is always two or three paces behind the others in the class, she''s going to have a difficult time keeping up. That may lead to frustration and discouragement.